Until 2050, the working age population in the EU-27 will shrink by 20%. Italy, Spain and Germany will be hit even harder by demographic change. Against this background we took a closer look at what it could take to cushion the effect of demographic change on the labor markets in the four largest economies Germany, France, Italy and Spain, running scenarios with different combinations of labor force participation, productivity and migration.
With its real estate and foreign investment engines sputtering, China desperately needs new drivers of growth. The real estate sector has gone from hero to zero since mid-2021: We estimate real estate development has been -26% lower than its pre-pandemic trend.