Resilient growth amidst improved fundamentals

Last update – January 2024
Business environment risk
Political risk
Commercial risk
Financing risk
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GDP USD1319.1bn (World ranking 16, World Bank 2022)
Population 275.5mn (World ranking 4, World Bank 2022)
Form of state
Republic
Head of government
Joko WIDODO (President)
Next elections
2024, legislative and presidential
  • Fast growing economy
  • Abundant natural resources
  • Favorable demographics
  • Relatively resilient banking system
  • Solid public finances and sound fiscal policies
  • Weak legal system
  • Inefficient tax administration and strong informal economy
  • Exports’ dependency on commodities and China
  • Serious infrastructure gap compared to regional peers
  • Increasing inequality poses a threat to social cohesion and inclusive economic growth
  • Low levels of educational spending

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  Exports Rank Imports  
China 20.7% 1 25.3% China
United States 10.9% 2 8.6% Singapore
Japan 8.0% 3 7.7% Japan
India 7.6% 4 Thailand.png 5.5% Thailand
Malaysia 5.3% 5
5.3% India

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Exports Rank Imports
Coal, coke and briquettes 20.6% 1 12.5% Petroleum, petroleum products and related materials
Fixed vegetable oils and fats, crude, refined or fractionated 11.7% 2 7.5% Iron and steel
Gas, natural and manufactured 11.2% 3 5.1% Electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances, n.e.s. 
Iron and steel 5.5% 4 5.0% Other industrial machinery and parts
Articles of apparel & clothing accessories 3.6% 5 4.6% Organic chemicals
Francoise Huang
Allianz Trade